The figure eclipsed the previous Test record of 50,962, set on day two of the Third Test in the infamous Bodyline series on 14 January 1933.
The total also surpassed the crowd of 52,633 from the 2015 BBL semi-final between the Adelaide Strikers and Sydney Sixers.
It was also the largest crowd at any sporting event at Adelaide Oval since the venue’s redevelopment in 2014, topping the 53,817 for this year’s AFL preliminary final between Adelaide and Geelong.
SACA records show a total of 172,361 fans attended the six days of the Bodyline Test in the 1932-33 season.
Four years later, the total attendance at the next Ashes Test at Adelaide Oval was 171,135.
More than 153,000 fans attended the 2013 Ashes Test at Adelaide Oval while the eastern stand was still under construction.
Australia will resume at 4/209 on day two of the Test at an earlier start time of 1:30pm. Gates open at 12pm.