The total attendance of 112,868 for the Domain First Test was only 141 behind the record for Australia versus India matches at the venue.
The record aggregate Test attendance for these teams (113,009) was set in 2014.
Saturday’s crowd of 30,348 was the second largest for any single day of a Test between the teams at Adelaide Oval.
The record is 35,081, set on Australia Day in January, 2012.
Fans were treated to a quality contest and a thrilling finish with India eventually claiming a 31-run win to begin the series.
Needing another 219 runs on the final day with Shaun Marsh and Travis Head at the crease, Australia’s batsmen looked comfortable from the start.
When Head was dismissed for 14 courtesy of a fierce Ishant Sharma short ball, Marsh still looked set to guide Australia home.
But his dismissal for 60 was decisive despite the efforts of captain Tim Paine (41), Pat Cummins (28) and Mitchell Starc (28).
They went from 7/187 to 9/259 with Nathan Lyon unbeaten on 38, but ultimately fell short of the 323 required for victory.
Cheteshwar Pujara was named Player of the Match for his first-innings century.
South Australia’s Travis Head was Australia’s leading scorer courtesy of a crucial 72 from 167 deliveries in the first innings.