South Australia will go into day three at 7-94, requiring another 81 runs for victory.
Lehmann is unbeaten on a match-high 41, with Nick Winter on three after SA's inexperienced top-order slipped to 5-32 in pursuit of 175 to win.
Incredibly, Lehmann and Winter also started the day at the crease, albeit batting in SA's first innings.
Mark Steketee did most of the damage for the home side taking 4-16.
Both teams had their collapses in another extraordinary day in which 20 wickets fell, outdoing the 17 wickets that fell on day one.
That's a wrap. Bulls all out for 130.— West End Redbacks (@WestEndRedbacks) March 12, 2019
Andrews gets nine for the match after Nielsen stumps Steketee, and we'll need 175 to win this one.
Full scorecard 📊: https://t.co/R3d1JA0Os5 #SheffieldShield #QLDvSA pic.twitter.com/c17YnFBXoC
The number of wickets to fall outnumbered boundaries hit in the match until late on day two.
SA resumed at 7-67, but added just four to their overnight total to concede a 44-run first innings deficit.
But Queensland in reply lost wickets at regular intervals to be bowled out just before tea for a match-high 130.
There were failures for Queensland's experienced top-three with Matt Renshaw (11), Joe Burns (0) and Marnus Labuschagne (3) all dismissed cheaply.
Sam Heazlett top-scored with 37, while tail-end contributions from Mark Steketee (21) and Mitch Swepson (14) could prove the difference in the final wash-up.
SA seamer Joe Mennie returned figures of 3-16, while left-arm spinner Tom Andrews collected 3-42 to be a wicket shy of a first 10-wicket match haul.
STUMPS ⌛— West End Redbacks (@WestEndRedbacks) March 12, 2019
Lehmann 41* and Winter 3* survive to the end of Day 2. With three wickets in hand, we need 81 more runs to clinch victory tomorrow.
Full scorecard 📊: https://t.co/R3d1JA0Os5 #SheffieldShield #QLDvSA pic.twitter.com/eWt4MEkn80