South Australia began day four at 4-82, requiring a near-impossible 466 to win.
But rapid-fire half-centuries from Redbacks captain Travis Head and wicketkeeper Alex Carey briefly had locals entertaining thoughts of an unlikely victory.
Head crushed 85 off 89 balls, with South Australia playing positively throughout the day to eat away at the Bulls' lofty lead.
Carey continued the attacking mindset with a 50 from just 48 balls before eventually falling for a sparkling 98.
Nightwatchman Joe Mennie helped kick-start the fightback, scoring 38 in a stand of 99 for the fifth wicket, while Adam Zampa chipped in once again down the order with 33.
However, when Carey was caught on the ropes looking for his second first-class ton, it was the beginning of the end for the Redbacks. South Australia was eventually bowled out for 347, handing Queensland a 188-run victory.
Bulls' fast-medium bowler Brendan Doggett collected 5-77 for his first five-wicket haul in his fifth match.
Queensland, having been pushed off top spot on the Shield standings for a day by Victoria, now boast a handy lead as they push for a spot in next month's final.
South Australia travel to Blundstone Arena to take on third-placed Tasmania from Monday 5 March in the Redbacks' next Sheffield Shield clash.